Difference between revisions of "LDAP"

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'''L'''ightweight '''D'''irectory '''A'''ccess '''P'''rotocol
 
'''L'''ightweight '''D'''irectory '''A'''ccess '''P'''rotocol
  
In [[wikipedia:computer networking]], the '''Lightweight Directory Access Protocol''', or '''LDAP''' ("ell-dap"), is a [[wikipedia:networking protocol]] for querying and modifying [[wikipedia:directory service]]s running over [[wikipedia:Internet protocol suite|TCP/IP]].  An LDAP directory usually follows the [[wikipedia:X.500]] model: it is a tree of entries, each of which consists of a set of named attributes with values. While some services use a more complicated "forest" model, the vast majority use a simple starting point for their database organization.
+
In [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/computer_networking computer networking], the '''Lightweight Directory Access Protocol''', or '''LDAP''' ("ell-dap"), is a [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/networking_protocol networking protocol] for querying and modifying [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/directory_service directory service]s running over [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Internet_protocol_suite TCP/IP].  An LDAP directory usually follows the [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/X.500 X.500] model: it is a tree of entries, each of which consists of a set of named attributes with values. While some services use a more complicated "forest" model, the vast majority use a simple starting point for their database organization.
  
An LDAP directory often reflects various political, geographic, and/or organizational boundaries, depending on the model chosen.  LDAP deployments today tend to use [[wikipedia:Domain Name System]] (DNS)  
+
An LDAP directory often reflects various political, geographic, and/or organizational boundaries, depending on the model chosen.  LDAP deployments today tend to use [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Domain_Name_System Domain Name System] (DNS)  
 
names for structuring the most simple levels of the hierarchy.  Further into the directory might appear entries representing people, organizational units, printers, documents, groups of people or anything else which represents a given tree entry, or multiple entries.
 
names for structuring the most simple levels of the hierarchy.  Further into the directory might appear entries representing people, organizational units, printers, documents, groups of people or anything else which represents a given tree entry, or multiple entries.
  
Its current version is LDAPv3.  LDAPv3 is specified in a series of [[wikipedia:IETF]] Standard Track [[wikipedia:Request for Comments|RFC]]s as detailed in RFC 4510.
+
Its current version is LDAPv3.  LDAPv3 is specified in a series of [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IETF IETF] Standard Track [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Request_for_Comments RFC]s as detailed in RFC 4510.
  
 +
=Interfaces=
 +
*[http://directory.apache.org/studio/ Apache Directory Studio]
 +
*[http://lam.sourceforge.net/ LAM (LDAP Account Manager)]
 +
*[http://phpldapadmin.sourceforge.net phpldapadmin]
 +
*ldapvi
  
== Tutorials ==
+
=Tutorials and docs=
* [http://www.zytrax.com/books/ldap/ http://www.zytrax.com/books/ldap/]
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*[[Pam-ldap]]
 +
*http://www.zytrax.com/books/ldap/
 +
*http://tuxick.net/ldap.html
 +
*http://ldapadministrator.com
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*[https://www.calmblue.net/blog/server/linux/openldap-server-on-debian-using-olc OpenLDAP server on Debian using OLC]
 +
*[http://thomas-howard.com/Reference/Articles/Apache+AD/ Apache Authentication with Active Directory]
 +
*[http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/ldap-howto.xml LDAP authentication on Gentoo (slightly outdated)]
 +
*[[LDAP Replication]]
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*[http://www.linuxtopia.org/online_books//network_administration_guides/ldap_administration/appendix-common-errors_Common_causes_of_LDAP_errors.html Common causes of LDAP errors]
 +
*[http://www.oav.net/mirrors/LDAP-ObjectClasses.html Objectclasses]
 +
*[http://www.zytrax.com/books/ldap/ LDAP for Rocket Scientists]
 +
*http://moduli.net/sysadmin/sarge-ldap-auth-howto.html
 +
*[http://www.zytrax.com/books/ldap/ch6/slapd-config.html#intro OpenLDAP using OLC (cn=config)]
  
== Links ==
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==Access control==
 +
*[http://www.openldap.org/doc/admin24/access-control.html Access Control]
 +
*http://www.zytrax.com/books/ldap/ch6/#access
 +
*[http://www.linuxtopia.org/online_books/network_administration_guides/ldap_administration/slapdconf2_Access_Control.html OLC access control]
 +
 
 +
==ldapmodify==
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*http://www.tldp.org/HOWTO/LDAP-HOWTO/utilities.html
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*[http://publib.boulder.ibm.com/infocenter/iseries/v5r3/index.jsp?topic=/rzahy/rzahydeleteobj.htm Delete an objectclass]
 +
 
 +
= Links =
 
* [http://www.openldap.org/ http://www.openldap.org/]
 
* [http://www.openldap.org/ http://www.openldap.org/]
 +
*[http://www.redhat.com/docs/manuals/dir-server/deploy/7.1/deployTOC.html Red Hat Directory Server documentation, worth reading]
 +
*[http://docs.sun.com/source/816-6064-10/ErrorMsg.doc7.html Error messages]
 +
 +
=FAQ=
 +
 +
==OLC==
 +
===Change OLC config===
 +
ldapmodify -Y EXTERNAL -H ldapi:///
 +
dn: cn=config
 +
replace: olcLogLevel
 +
olcLogLevel: None
 +
 +
CTRL + D
 +
 +
 +
===view configuration in OLC===
 +
slapcat -H "ldap:///cn=config??sub?(olcDatabase=*)"
 +
 +
ldapsearch -Y EXTERNAL -H ldapi:/// -b cn=config
 +
 +
 +
 +
==add indexes==
 +
http://forum.zentyal.org/index.php?topic=3006.0
 +
http://www.zytrax.com/books/ldap/apa/indeces.html
 +
 +
NOTE: there is no more need to run slapindex!!
 +
 +
==additional info: structuralObjectClass: no user modification allowed==
 +
use slapadd instead of ldapadd, while slapd is NOT running:
 +
 +
slapadd -v < ldap.ldif
 +
 +
==AttributeType inappropriate matching rule: "integerMatch"==
 +
duh
 +
 +
==Replace LDAP database==
 +
service slapd stop
 +
rm /var/lib/ldap/*
 +
slapadd -l dump.ldif
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chown -R openldap.openldap /var/lib/ldap
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service slapd start
 +
 +
 +
==create a new database from ldif file==
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slapadd -f dump.ldif
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Remember to set rights to the db storage!
 +
 +
==add a record==
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ldapadd
 +
 +
==modify a record==
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*http://docs.sun.com/source/816-6400-10/lmodify.html
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 +
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ldapmodify -x -D "cn=admin, dc=bar, dc=com" -W << EOF
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dn: cn=foo, dc=bar, dc=com
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changetype: modify
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replace: sn
 +
sn: new name
 +
EOF
 +
 +
Or
 +
ldapmodify -D "cn=admin,dc=bar,dc=com" -Y EXTERNAL -H ldapi:/// << EOF
 +
..
 +
EOF
 +
 +
Or even, also for reconfiguration of OLC
 +
ldapmodify -Y EXTERNAL -H ldapi:/// < foo.ldif
 +
 +
==change olcAccess, olcSuffix etc==
 +
I managed this changing things in following order:
 +
olcAccess{2}
 +
olcAccess{0}
 +
olcRootDN
 +
olcSuffix
 +
 +
 +
EOF
 +
 +
==add an attribute==
 +
changetype: modify
 +
add: objectClass
 +
objectClass: qmailUser
 +
 +
==search for a record==
 +
http://docs.sun.com/source/816-6400-10/lsearch.html
 +
 +
ldapsearch -x -b '' -s base '(objectclass=*)' namingContexts
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ldapsearch -x -b "dc=foo, dc=com" "uid=harry"
 +
 +
*scope?
 +
 +
 +
==ber_get_next on fd 12 failed errno=0 (Success)==
 +
You're probably trying to use ldapadd without -x
 +
 +
==ber_get_next on fd 15 failed errno=11 (Resource temporarily Unavailable)==
 +
??
 +
 +
==rootdn is always granted unlimited privileges==
 +
 +
 +
==Error number: 0x50 (LDAP_OTHER)==
 +
===Internal (implementation specific) error===
 +
You probably ran slapindex as wrong user. Set rights on the directory you find under 'directory' in slapd.conf for the user slapd runs as ( openldap on debian )
 +
 +
==search filters==
 +
*http://www.faqs.org/rfcs/rfc2254.html
 +
 +
 +
==main: TLS init def ctx failed: -1==
 +
Probably no access to one of the certificate files
 +
 +
 +
==ldif_read_file: checksum error on "/etc/ldap/slapd.d/cn=config/olcDatabase={1}bdb.ldif"==
 +
You edited config file instead of using ldapmodify. This error will go away once you used ldapmodify on it.
 +
 +
=Keywords=
 +
==rootdn==
 +
The user/account with full access
 +
 +
 +
=Tools=
 +
*phpldapadmin
 +
*ldapbrowser
 +
*lam
 +
*shelldap
 +
*ldapvi

Latest revision as of 16:54, 19 October 2016

Lightweight Directory Access Protocol

In computer networking, the Lightweight Directory Access Protocol, or LDAP ("ell-dap"), is a networking protocol for querying and modifying directory services running over TCP/IP. An LDAP directory usually follows the X.500 model: it is a tree of entries, each of which consists of a set of named attributes with values. While some services use a more complicated "forest" model, the vast majority use a simple starting point for their database organization.

An LDAP directory often reflects various political, geographic, and/or organizational boundaries, depending on the model chosen. LDAP deployments today tend to use Domain Name System (DNS) names for structuring the most simple levels of the hierarchy. Further into the directory might appear entries representing people, organizational units, printers, documents, groups of people or anything else which represents a given tree entry, or multiple entries.

Its current version is LDAPv3. LDAPv3 is specified in a series of IETF Standard Track RFCs as detailed in RFC 4510.

Interfaces

Tutorials and docs

Access control

ldapmodify

Links

FAQ

OLC

Change OLC config

ldapmodify -Y EXTERNAL -H ldapi:///
dn: cn=config
replace: olcLogLevel
olcLogLevel: None

CTRL + D


view configuration in OLC

slapcat -H "ldap:///cn=config??sub?(olcDatabase=*)"

ldapsearch -Y EXTERNAL -H ldapi:/// -b cn=config


add indexes

http://forum.zentyal.org/index.php?topic=3006.0 http://www.zytrax.com/books/ldap/apa/indeces.html

NOTE: there is no more need to run slapindex!!

additional info: structuralObjectClass: no user modification allowed

use slapadd instead of ldapadd, while slapd is NOT running:

slapadd -v < ldap.ldif

AttributeType inappropriate matching rule: "integerMatch"

duh

Replace LDAP database

service slapd stop
rm /var/lib/ldap/*
slapadd -l dump.ldif
chown -R openldap.openldap /var/lib/ldap
service slapd start


create a new database from ldif file

slapadd -f dump.ldif

Remember to set rights to the db storage!

add a record

ldapadd

modify a record


ldapmodify -x -D "cn=admin, dc=bar, dc=com" -W << EOF
dn: cn=foo, dc=bar, dc=com
changetype: modify
replace: sn
sn: new name
EOF

Or

ldapmodify -D "cn=admin,dc=bar,dc=com" -Y EXTERNAL -H ldapi:/// << EOF
..
EOF

Or even, also for reconfiguration of OLC

ldapmodify -Y EXTERNAL -H ldapi:/// < foo.ldif

change olcAccess, olcSuffix etc

I managed this changing things in following order:

olcAccess{2}
olcAccess{0}
olcRootDN
olcSuffix


EOF

add an attribute

changetype: modify
add: objectClass
objectClass: qmailUser

search for a record

http://docs.sun.com/source/816-6400-10/lsearch.html

ldapsearch -x -b  -s base '(objectclass=*)' namingContexts
ldapsearch -x -b "dc=foo, dc=com" "uid=harry"
  • scope?


ber_get_next on fd 12 failed errno=0 (Success)

You're probably trying to use ldapadd without -x

ber_get_next on fd 15 failed errno=11 (Resource temporarily Unavailable)

??

rootdn is always granted unlimited privileges

Error number: 0x50 (LDAP_OTHER)

Internal (implementation specific) error

You probably ran slapindex as wrong user. Set rights on the directory you find under 'directory' in slapd.conf for the user slapd runs as ( openldap on debian )

search filters


main: TLS init def ctx failed: -1

Probably no access to one of the certificate files


ldif_read_file: checksum error on "/etc/ldap/slapd.d/cn=config/olcDatabase={1}bdb.ldif"

You edited config file instead of using ldapmodify. This error will go away once you used ldapmodify on it.

Keywords

rootdn

The user/account with full access


Tools

  • phpldapadmin
  • ldapbrowser
  • lam
  • shelldap
  • ldapvi